Innovators and Global Leaders


Plenary Session (Part 3)

- Evaluation of Paris Agreement and Strategies after COP21 -

Session background and objectives

In accordance with the discussion in plenary session part1 and based on the result of the concurrent sessions, plenary session part 3 will evaluate the Paris Agreement and discuss the possible strategies after COP21.
This session will focus on the following topics.
1) Appropriate implementation of the Paris Agreement, such as the framework of the pledge and review, approach to the developing countries
2) Technology mechanisms and finance mechanisms (according to the article 10 of the Paris Agreement).
3) Strategies in the private sector in accordance with the Paris Agreement for accelerating innovation.


David Sandalow [Moderator]

CV (SC Profile page)

Inaugural Fellow, Center on Global Energy Policy, Columbia University

Sir David King


UK Foreign Secretary’s Special Representative for Climate Change, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO)


12 December 2022 – the date that the Paris Agreement was reached – was a great turning point for humanity. Sir David King’s speech will explore the extent to which the Paris Agreement is the solution, how far it goes, and how other agreements reached in the margins of Paris support the goal of net zero emissions. Sir David King will emphasise the importance of Mission Innovation, the high-profile initiative to strengthen public funding of clean energy RD&D;, which Japan and the UK are both parties to. Finally Sir David King will emphasise the UK Government’s ongoing commitment to tackling climate change.

Eija-Riitta Korhola

CV (SC Profile page) View and Download Presentation

Delegate of the Consultative Commission on Industrial Change; Adviser in the EU affairs


The Paris Agreement has been called a ‘historic achievement’ and the ‘greatest diplomatic success of the globe’ but also an ‘epic failure’ or even a ‘fraud’. An explanation to these contradictory evaluations lays in the paradoxical nature of the Paris agreement: it is a non-binding ambitious treaty. In other words, an oxymoron.
The agreement does not impose any binding substantive obligations, but when it comes to the final goal, it sets forth the ambitious objective of limiting the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C or even 1.5 °C. This means that collectively it obliges the ratifying states to the almost impossible - at the same time when the agreement does not bind them as an individual country.
Will this paradoxical starting point produce results? I am going to examine this question in my presentation.

David Victor

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Professor of International Relations, School of Global Policy and Strategy, University of California, San Diego (UCSD)

Philippe Benoit

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Head, Energy Environment Division, Directorate of Sustainability, Technology and Outlooks, International Energy Agency (IEA)

Toshiyuki Shiga

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Vice chairman, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.


It is not in doubt that Paris agreement is historic. Especially, the long-term vision, which is to aim net-zero CO2 society in the second half of this century, has significant impact on the business. Business as usual is dying and the transformation of business and society is required.
Nissan introduced Nissan LEAF, the first mass-market electric vehicle, in 2010. More than 200,000 LEAF are now being used by our customers globally. What is behind the decision to launch electric vehicle ahead of the competitors? What is needed to make the innovation happen? The direction of business after COP21 will be mentioned based on our experience.


  1. 1. Evaluation and appropriate implementation of the Paris Agreement
  2. 2. Desirable coordination between the finance mechanism and the technology mechanism (according to the article 9 and 10 of the Paris Agreement respectively).
  3. 3. Strategies in the private sector in accordance with the Paris Agreement for accelerating innovation.
  4. 4. What are the most important priorities for COP22 in Marrakech?
  5. 5. What are the most important steps that should be taken following COP22 in Marrakech?

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